Friday, October 27, 2023

Tips, ideas, and recommendations on your technical blog

This technical blog is hardly the ideal, but I'll use this space here to summarize some of the guidance that my colleague Randolph West and I presented at a Microsoft MVP PGI this week. Their summary and mine specifically on the technical blogging are hopefully a resource for you, especially if you are early in your career or a Microsoft Student Ambassador.

Technical blogging can grow your technical depth and writing skillsets simultaneously. Ideas, tips, and recommendations:

Blog content ideas:

  • Reference, samples, labs, especially for newcomers to the field.
  • Deep dives into a topic you're interested in.
  • Summaries and use cases of new features or changes.
  • What's new? pages in Microsoft Docs are rich with blog ideas
  • Checklists, best practices and lessons learned are great blog content.
  • Your clients and customers are a fertile farm of reusable scripts, patterns and antipatterns, tools, and blog posts. "It depends" answers are great blog posts.
  •  Technically reusable content from client to client is a value add. A public bucket or toolbox of lessons learned is valuable.
  •  Remember the best way to learn a topic is to try and teach it (or explain it in a public blog).

Tips on blogging:

  • You don't have to be unique (but don't plagiarize). You can write about any topic, even if it's been covered by bigger names. Your voice is valuable.
  • Don't steal content or plagiarize, but you can admire and emulate (and attribute with links) the style/format of another author or blogger. Emulate things you like about someone else's process or research style or content format.
  • Make it into a story if you can, "It tried this, it broke, I tried this, it didn't work, I fixed it this way..."
  • A problem with no solution is worth blogging about. Sometimes, blogging about a problem is a great way to work the problem, and figure it out in the process.
  • Write regularly, set a schedule. Pick a topic. Not every post has to be a novel.
  • Do you ever write too much? Blogging can be great practice in distilling the core problem/concept to a palatable, communicable summary. It's easy to be wordy and redundant. It's a skill to practice writing more concise technical summaries. "If I Had More Time, I Would Have Written Less"
  • Challenge your preconceived notions. Be humble in defeat and write about it. If you're proven wrong, your immediate reaction is usually to be defensive. The second reaction should be to learn from it, perhaps blog about it.

Get an editor, or volunteer to edit for blogs, newsletters, articles.

  • Ask for a volunteer (or pay a) technical editor for your own blog.
  • Listen to feedback. You trusted someone to edit you for a reason.
  • Edits can feel like a gut punch. Don't take it personally.
  • Politely ask to be someone else's volunteer technical editor for their blog.
  • Provide constructive feedback, challenge assumptions, test technical scripts.
  • Easier to find inconsistencies or gaps in someone else's work, it can be instructive to your own work.

Sunday, July 30, 2023

Updated training list for a new DBA

Met an eager young volunteer at SQLSatBR over the weekend who inspired me to update a blog post that hadn't been refreshed in a few years. See the [UPDATED] Training To-Do List for New DBA.

Friday, July 21, 2023

SQLSat Baton Rouge 2023!

Looking forward to #jambalaya at #SQLSatBR on July 29!

Register today:

I hope to see as many people as possible that weekend, I'll be there at the Friday night speaker event.

On Saturday, I am speaking at:

See you there!

Friday, March 24, 2023

SQL Server 2022 Administration Inside Out

SQL Server 2022 Administration Inside Out is now available for pre-order from Microsoft Press. 

This book is far more than a quick update. We've rewritten and refreshed large portions of the book, with applicability for modern security and Azure integration features. We reorganized content especially around Azure SQL DB and Azure SQL MI and all the new performance features and integrations.

Biggest of thanks for countless personal hours of deep edits and rewrites go out to Randolph West. Major contributions from the book team: Joseph D'Antoni, Louis Davidson, Meagan Longoria, Elizabeth Noble, and Melody Zacharias. Thanks also and congrats to technical editors William Carter and Josh Smith for their first big book experience. And thanks for infinite patience and tireless updates from our Pearson editor Loretta Yates.

The book should be on shelves and available in digital formats on May 8.

Tuesday, February 28, 2023

30 Interview Questions for a Database Administrator and Developer

This blog post summarizes the type of technical questions I would ask candidates for a Microsoft SQL Server data platform administrator and database developer role.

Hopefully this helps both candidates and managers prepare for interviews. I have no qualms in providing the brief answers because your interview, like mine, should be: 

  • behavioral: based on scenarios, not multiple choice answers.
  • open ended: ask for an explanation, not a single word answer.
  • conversational: testing how the candidate would explain this to a client or colleague.
  • applicable: only ask questions relevant to your environment and in the job description.

When I was the manager of a SQL Server managed service provider and a principal consultant at a consulting company, I interviewed and hired database administrators to be consultants, remote DBAs, and database developers for our app dev internal projects.

I've divided the 30 questions into four categories.

Tuesday, January 24, 2023

Exam Cram with DataWeekender talk - Think Like a Certification Exam

Fresh off of a two-part, co-authored blog series on certification exams and test-taking prep, I've got a fresh batch of fun sample questions for the January 2023 Data Weekender Exam Cram series. Looking forward to discussing the recently-released Microsoft Azure certification prep resources too at 5:30pm Irish time or 9:30AM PT. 

Register to attend at:

Azure cert prep materials are also receiving quite a bit of investment in new resources: career guides, test sandbox, live Azure resource sandboxes, free practice assessments, and more. I'll look forward to discussing those!

You can find the .pptx for my presentation here on GitHub. Questions? Comments? Reach out on LinkedIn.

A video recording of this session is available: 

Monday, January 23, 2023

Q&A on certification exams, exam prep, and test-taking skills

Part 2 of 2. This blog post is co-authored by Ajayi Anwansedo, PhD and William Assaf, who met and worked together at The Futures Funda STEM non-profit which offers introductory coding and web development classes to teens and adults.

In the previous blog post, we discussed the why, what, when and how of taking a certification exam. Here, we'll go through a variety of related Q&A, answering from our different perspectives. 

Q&A on certification exams

Question 1: How to start preparing for a certification exam?

William: Start by understanding who the intended audience of the certification exam is. Is it a fundamentals exam covering concepts, or is it (more commonly) a cert exam looking to test years of experience? A fundamentals exam (like Microsoft’s AZ-900 Microsoft Azure Fundamentals or Google's Cloud Digital Leader or IBM’s C1000-068: Foundations of IBM Blockchain Platform V2) is intended to get newcomers rolling in a field with no prerequisites. A fundamentals exam will cover more book learning, but a more advanced exam will ask scenario-based questions, intending to test experience. For a fundamentals exam, usually the provider will provide a significant amount of onboarding information, because they want you to pass and start gaining experience! Other exams like DP-300 or AZ-305 are intended to test experienced professionals with years in the field. For a more advanced exam, you need to be working in the field already and gaining that experience. First step - make sure you’re targeting an exam that is meant for your level of experience.

Ajayi: You prepare for the certification exam by asking the following questions - “What is the certification exam about?“, “Why do I want to take this certification exam?”, “What are the benefits of taking the certification exam?” and “How will my career be affected if I do not take the certification exam?” You can help yourself prepare for the certification exam by answering these questions. Additionally, they will keep you motivated to finish the process.


Q2: What kind of test questions are the most difficult for item writers to create?

Ajayi: Multiple choice questions (MCQ) can be difficult to create. MCQs are composed of the question and a selection of possible answers. The test-taker must choose the correct answer from the selection of possible answers. First, the item writer must determine the type of question to create – direct questions, single statement questions or complex questions. Then they must decide if the test-taker can select only one answer or multiple answers. In terms of answer options, it is necessary to strike a balance between making the questions neither too simple nor too complex for test-takers to guess. The item writer must also decide whether the incorrect options should be variants of the correct option or differ significantly from it. Usually, there is the best option, a correct option and all the other options are distractors.

William: Questions that are based on the exact order of operations are tricky to write, and test-takers should understand why. Oftentimes in system setups, there is no specific order necessary, but there are common or best practice orders. But certification exams cannot test best practices or industry standards. A build list question often includes extremely specific complications to force one exact order of operations. Advice for test takers: look for those complications in the question's text, they are there for a reason and are a clue to what wrong solutions can be eliminated. 

Q3: What issues with diversity, equity, and inclusion (DE&I) do you see in some certification exams?

William: Cultural bias is definitely a challenge for exam question writers. There’s a famous SAT question that included an analogy to a “regatta” (a fancy boat race). Many students would not understand this question for no other reason but not to have been exposed to that type of event in their lives. This cuts across socioeconomic and racial lines, not just geographic lines. Many questions involving sports have the same problem because not everyone is familiar with the rules of cricket or racquetball or baseball. Using regional phrases or cultural idioms in an exam can be biased too. This is why item writers, reviewers, and subject matter experts for a cert exam must be from a diverse set of backgrounds and experiences. Questions should test technical credentials, not racial, socioeconomic, geographic, or cultural backgrounds.

Ajayi: To piggyback off William’s sentiments – the same can be said about soccer and football, fries and chips, and trashcans and dustbins. It’s the responsibility of the test taker to recognize that certain items may have different names or meanings. The content of the exam is tailored to the specific industry, but shouldn't be exclusive to a culture or region. In terms of inclusion, there can be accessibility issues in developing questions/answers that cater to various types of learners (Visual, Auditory, and Kinaesthetic learners) and different types of abilities (intellectual ability and physical ability).

Q4: How do you study for certification exams? 

Ajayi: Identify the certification you want to take from the company’s website. Review the certification preview page for important information about the certification. For IBM certifications, the certification preview page contains the certification overview, recommended skills, requirements, exam objectives, exam resources and FAQs. In the exam objectives session, you will find the number of questions you need to answer correctly to pass the exam. You will also find an outline of the exam content and the percentage of exam questions taken from each content area. Next, ask for tips from someone who has taken and passed the exam you are about to take. These tips will help you avoid making the same mistakes others have made. Then determine your study habits – how you like to study; in groups or by yourself, best time to study, and so on. Understanding your study habits can make your study plan efficient. Next, create a study routine and plan. Also, review questions early in your study process.

William: Use the preparation materials provided by the company behind the subject matter, of course. Start by reviewing a syllabus and study guide for the exam. In the case of Microsoft, they are now offering free practice tests for many Microsoft certification exams. Practice tests can be used to validate what you know about the technical content. If you see something on the syllabus, study guide, or practice tests that you don't know or haven't worked with yet, that's where to start. When it comes to actually learning the material covered on the test, study by doing. Take this from some who has written books for Microsoft – don't study only by reading books, study by gaining experience with the features and products covered on the exam.

Q5: Why become certified? How would it help my career?

Ajayi: A standard reason to get certified is because it is required to qualify for certain roles or projects. Generally, people get certified because of past, present, and future events. Remember the time when you had to work on a project and you had no idea what you were doing, or the time you did not get that role because you did not have enough experience? These past events may influence your decision to get certified so that you will be better prepared for similar situations in the future. At present, you may want to get certified because of the company, new role, or new project requirements. You may want to equip yourself with the knowledge or tools to perform better in your current role, to stand out from the crowd or make your team better (team metrics). Future reasons to get certified may include increasing your earning capacity, marketability, and credibility. Other reasons include promotion, career advancement, prestige, and personal development.

William: I always say that the process of preparing for a certification exam is more beneficial to your skillset than the certificate itself. Having taken many SQL Server certification exams, there are parts of the product I only know because of my preparation for past exams, because I never encountered them at work. Most helpful are the times I get hands-on with something new to learn it before the exam. There are also many examples where the prep for a certification exam allowed me to be immediately familiar with new customer challenges. Those are times I can say that exam prep directly benefited my work product.

Q6: What is the main purpose of certification exams?

William: Fundamentals exams are meant to encourage adoption, especially of cloud services. Higher-level exams are intended to test a candidate's specific solutions delivery experience, not their memorization.

Ajayi: Certification exams are used to gauge an individual’s expertise in a particular profession or content area. 

Q&A on test-taking skills

Q7: It’s the day of the exam. I’ve studied, what should I do now?

Ajayi: Everyone has a state of mind where they are most productive – What is yours? and how do you get yourself into that state? Some people have rituals. For me, wearing the same hairstyle for every exam helped. Your thing could be to wear comfortable clothes, eat your best food or no food at all– whatever gets you into that state, do that.

William: Get good sleep the night before. Eat something with protein. Wear comfortable clothes. Go into the exam with confidence that regardless of the outcome, your career has already benefited from the preparation process.

Q8: What should I do in the final few minutes before an exam begins?

Ajayi: I would say be calm and be quiet. Although, I have seen test-takers chatting until it's exam time and still getting good scores. Like I said in the previous question, do what works for you.

William: Review a quick reference card or test prep if you like, but otherwise, try to make sure your heartbeat is calm and cool. Take a few moments to quiet your mind before.

Q9: What strategies should I remember during the test?

William: Remember, each correct answer must be 100% correct and the other answers are 100% incorrect. (Lawyers enforce this!) At no point should the right answer depend on best practices or industry standards or unofficial naming conventions. Don't assume that's what the question is asking, always look for details or requirements to eliminate wrong answers.

Ajayi: If it is a lengthy question like the questions in the PMP exam, read the last statement or the statement containing the question first, before reading the entire question. This way you are not distracted by unimportant details. Read and understand all the answer options before choosing your answer.


Q10: What should I do if two answers appear to be correct?

Ajayi: Understand the “ask” of the question. Go to court. Attempt to defend your answer. Explain why you think either answer is the best answer. Remember there is a correct and the best answer. Have scenarios and examples.

William: There will be some details in the question text to make only one answer is 100% correct. Go back through the question text, reading carefully anything you may have read quickly at first. There will be some detail in place to eliminate one of the answers.


Q11: What test-taking advice could I share with my kids?

Ajayi: Make sure they know how to prepare for the test in advance. This helps them to be more relaxed as the test date approaches and during the test. Tell them Rome was not built in a day. They cannot complete the test content in a day. They need to have a study routine and plan. Tell them to relate and connect whatever they learn to their everyday life and what they already know. This helps them retain and recall the content during the exam easily. Tell them to answer the questions they are sure of first, then go over the others carefully. Tell them to have fun.

William: Build their confidence through their successes, even if through other subjects in school. Build their confidence through a process of preparation. Build their confidence with repeatable processes so that a kiddo has confidence in their preparation before an exam. And make sure they eat breakfast!

Q12: How do I build confidence with my test-taking skills?

William: Remember that an exam, especially a certification exam, is beneficial to you because of the preparation process. The preparation process, especially where you get hands-on with something you hadn't yet encountered at work or school, is time well spent. The exam itself is just the final step of a journey.

Ajayi: Practice, Practice, Practice. Be your own examiner.

So, you're considering pursuing a certification exam

Part 1 of 2. This blog post is co-authored by Ajayi Anwansedo, PhD and William Assaf, who met and worked together at The Futures Funda STEM non-profit which offers introductory coding and web development classes to teens and adults.

So, you're considering pursuing a certification exam. Congratulations for taking your career into your own hands! Preparing for a certification is a commitment but it doesn't require derailing your personal life.  This co-authored blog post is mean to encourage, empower, and enlighten you. 

Does passing a certification exam make you a better developer, programmer, analyst, or administrator? We would argue the process of preparing for an exam, the preparation of the materials, and the mindset that led you to the self-improvement path of the certification exams, are all productive, causative, and beneficial for your career.

The benefits to your own learning and knowledge are obvious but a 2015 International Data Corporation (IDC) study found that certified employees resulted in 56% less unplanned downtime, 58% faster time to market for applications, and 39% less time for new hires to reach full productivity. These are beneficial to your future employers as well, which is why certifications are valuable on your resume.

Let's discuss why, what, and when of taking a certification exam. Then, we'll discuss how: how to prepare, how to have success test-taking, and how to build confidence in test-taking skills. In the next blog post, we'll address some frequently asked questions about certifications, exams, test-taking skills, and more.

Why pursue a certification exam?

First, you prepare for the certification exam by asking the following questions:

“Why do I want to take a certification exam?”

“What are the benefits of taking a certification exam?” and

“How will my career be affected if I do not take the certification exam?”

Answering these questions will help you prepare for the certification exam. Additionally, a clear understanding of the reason you need to take the exam and the potential consequences of not taking the exam will keep you motivated to finish the process.

 - Ajayi

What exam should you pursue?

After deciding you are prepared to take a certification exam, the next step is to decide what exam to take.

Sometimes taking a certification exam is mandated by your organization or job prospect. Here we will address taking a certification exam for self-improvement/career advancement purposes. Consider:

  1. Deciding on what certification will enhance your current job performance or career prospects.
  2. Get an idea from someone who is at the ideal job/position you are pursuing.

Next, it's important to understand who the intended audience of the certification exam is.

Is it a fundamentals exam covering concepts, or is it (more commonly) a cert exam looking to test experience? A fundamentals exam (like Microsoft’s AZ-900) is intended to get newcomers rolling in a field, whereas exams like DP-300 are intended to test solutions experience.

A fundamentals exam will be more like book learning, but a more advanced exam will ask scenario-based questions, intending to test experience. For a fundamentals exam, usually the provider will provide you with a significant amount of onboarding information, because they want you to pass and start gaining experience!

For a more advanced exam, you need to be working in the field already and gaining that experience. Make sure you’re targeting an exam that is meant for your level of experience.

- William

When should you pursue a certification exam?

Timing, they say, is everything. A friend took a certification exam a few months before their company went through reorganization. The reorganization of the company resulted in said friend having to interview for a new position. During the interview process, one of the major requirements for this new position was the certification they had taken months earlier. I had no idea I was friends with Nostradamus.

- Ajayi

Taking certification exams before you need them can help you prepare for a future role. Here are some of the best times to take certification exams.

1. You're a student or new to the field (target fundamentals/introductory certs first!)

2. When you are job-hunting

3. After you get a new job

4. Before the promotion cycle

5. Whenever you have idle time

6. When you need to shake up your career

7. When you're afraid of becoming obsolete*

*That last reason for taking a certification exam should be a bigger concern for folks who work on aging technology and don't get an opportunity to see new products or features. Preparing for a certification exam is a great way to make sure you aren't vulnerable to being left behind by progress or vulnerable after a layoff. Your employer is not motivated to keep you up to date as you maintain legacy systems, that is up to you!

So now that you know how to prepare before taking a certification exam, when are you taking your next certification exam in 2023?

In the next blog post, we'll address some frequently asked questions about certifications, exams, test-taking skills, and more.


Ajayi Anwansedo, PhD is an Associate Training and Change Consultant for IBM. She has over a decade's experience in training and development. She is passionate about STEM education and is a 2-time National Center for Women in Technology Award (NCWIT) Winner – for playing a pivotal role in promoting gender equity in computing and technology. She works with various organizations to make STEM accessible to all.

William Assaf is a senior content developer for Microsoft Learn for the Database Docs team, a veteran writer and SME for Microsoft certification exams, and author of the last three editions of SQL Server Administration Inside Out by Microsoft Press. William has been writing and taking certification exams for the past decade and has been authoring Microsoft Learn content since 2020.